Egypt

Tertiary Education

Tertiary education in Egypt entails education offered at higher technical institutes or at the country’s universities.

Higher institutes

The number of students enrolled in higher institutes increased by a mere 2.8% from 344,824 in 2005/04 to 354,437 in 2014/13. Over the same period, the number of male students enrolled in higher institutions increased by 17%, while the number of female students enrolled decreased by 21.2%. The majority (23.7%) of students enrolled in higher institutions were at institutes of computers.

Table 4.30: Students enrolled in higher institutes by sex (2004/05–2014/13)

Higher institute Sex 2005/04 2010/09 2014/13
Engineering and technology Total 53,139 88,286 80,377
Male 43,285 72,180 67,153
Female 9,854 16,106 13,224
Computer Total 63,427 75,191 84,078
Male 46,741 55,642 65,086
Female 16,686 19,729 18,992
Commercial Total 41,228 35,636 78,794
Male 23,381 23,187 56,314
Female 17,847 12,449 22,480
Literacy Total 4,818 4,192 2,098
Male 2,881 2,523 1,699
Female 1,937 1,669 399
Agriculture Total 11,733 6,887 9,281
Male 7,995 4,548 6,942
Female 3,738 2,339 2,339
Social services Total 149,316 111,620 69,571
Male 77,605 51,027 34,872
Female 71,711 60,593 34,699
Languages and/or translation Total 8,365 10,366 8,628
Male 5,004 6,468 5,830
Female 3,361 3,898 2,798
Tourism and hotels Total 11,011 21,321 18,253
Male 8,551 16,486 13,621
Female 2,460 4,835 4,632
Information Total 1,787 1,819 3,357
Male 965 980 1,691
Female 822 839 1,666
Total Total 344,824 355,318 354,437
Male 216,408 232,861 253,208
Female 128,416 122,457 101,229

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[143]

Between 2005/04 and 2013/12, the number of graduates from higher technical institutes dropped by 9.4% from 74,627 to 67,618. The number of female graduates decreased 20.8%, while the number of male graduates fell by only 1.5%. Social service institutes accounted for 29% of graduates from higher technical institutes, followed by commercial institutes (27%) and engineering institutes (18%).

Table 4.31: Graduates from higher technical institutes by sex (2005/04–2013/12)

Higher institute Sex 2005/04 2010/09 2013/12
Engineering Total 5,769 7,123 11,920
Male 4,512 5,742 9,530
Female 1,257 1,381 2.390
Computer Total 12,077 12,878 11,257
Male 8,225 8,810 8,602
Female 3,852 4,068 2,655
Commercial Total 20,236 25,954 18,029
Male 12,194 16,714 12,056
Female 8,042 9,240 5,973
Literacy Total 747 1,509 335
Male 433 826 253
Female 314 683 82
Agriculture Total 2,930 1,554 1,098
Male 1,977 970 815
Female 953 584 283
Social service Total 29,252 25,287 19,355
Male 14,299 11,028 8,391
Female 14,953 14,259 10,964
Languages and/or translation Total 488 1,015 660
Male 211 546 312
Female 277 469 348
Tourism and hotels Total 2,779 5,411 4,244
Male 2,132 3,886 3,222
Female 647 1,525 1,022
Information Total 349 709 720
Male 195 357 329
Female 154 352 391
Total Total 74,627 81,440 67,618
Male 44,178 48,879 43,510
Female 30,449 32,561 24,108

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[144]

Universities

In 2013/12, Egypt had 24 public universities and 19 private universities. Ninety five percent of students, 1.7 million, were enrolled at public universities.[145]

Table 4.32: Tertiary education landscape in Egypt (2013/12)

Institutional types Number of institutions Enrolments
Public universities 24 1,654,455
Private universities 19 86,491
Total 43 1,740,946

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[146]

Figures for tertiary enrolment UNESCO for 2015 are considerably higher and suggest that 2.9 million students were enrolled in 2015. Of those students, 91.2% (2.6 million) were enrolled to study undergraduate qualifications, while only 8.8% were enrolled to study postgraduate qualifications (see table 4.33).[147]

Table 4.33: Enrolment in tertiary education – Egypt (2015)

Level of tertiary education Number enrolled % of those enrolled in tertiary education
ISCED 5 and 6 2,616,325 91.2
ISCED 7 and 8 252,587 8.8
Total 2,868,912 100

Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016[148]

According to figures from the Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistic’s 2015 Statistical Yearbook, the number of enrolments in 2014/13 was 3.4 million students, compared to 1.8 million students in 2005/04. This represents an increase of 82.8% over a period of 9 to 10 years. Between 2005/04 and 2012/11, the number of male enrolments accounted for the majority of tertiary enrolments, but this was not the case in 2014/13, where the number of female enrolments surpassed those of males.[149] (See table 4.34 below.)

Table 4.34: Enrolments of students for tertiary education in Egypt (000s) (2005/04–2014/13)

  2005/04 2008/07 2010/09 2012/11 2014/13
Total 1,843 1,916 2,005 1,714 3,368
Male 969 985 1,021 888 1,679
Female 874 932 984 826 1,689

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[150]

Between 1990 and 2014, the gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education rose from 14.9% to 31.7%. The gross enrolment ratio has generally been higher for males than females since 1990. In 1990 it was 19.4% for males and 10.3% for females and in 2014 it was 33.4% for males and 29.9% for females.[151]

Figure 4.24
Source: World Bank, 2016[152]
Figure 4.24: School enrolment, tertiary (% gross) (1990–2014)

Table 4.35 below indicates the percentage distribution of public and private enrolments in tertiary education in Egypt between 2008/07 and 2013/12. In 2013/12, private tertiary enrolments constituted only 5% of the total tertiary enrolments, an increase of 19% from 2011/10. The share of enrolments in public institutions correspondingly declined slightly from 97.5% in 2008/07 to 95% in 2013/12.[153]

Table 4.35: Public and private enrolments in tertiary education (2008/07–2013/12)

  2008/07 2011/10 2013/12
School enrolment, tertiary, public (% of total tertiary) 97.5 95.8 95.0
School enrolment, tertiary, private (% of total tertiary) 2.5 4.2 5.0

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[154]

Of students enrolled in theoretical faculties, the majority were enrolled in the fields of commerce (26.8%), followed by law (18.9%) and arts and humanitarian studies (17.2%). The field of study with the smallest percentage (1.7%) of enrolled students was social service. The majority of male students (32.1%) were enrolled in the field of commerce, while the majority of female students (24.8%) were enrolled in the field of arts and humanitarian studies.[155]

Of students enrolled in practical faculties, the majority of students were enrolled in the fields of engineering (22%), while the smallest percentage (4.3%) of students was enrolled in nursing. The majority of male students (31.1%) were enrolled in the field of engineering, while the majority of female students (19.1%) were enrolled in the field of sciences.[156]

Table 4:36: Enrolments to tertiary education by field of study and sex (2014/13)

Faculty of study % of all students % of male students % of female students
Theoretical faculties
Arts and humanitarian studies 17.2 9.6 24.8
Education 8.5 5.2 11.7
Social service 1.7 1.2 2.2
Commerce 26.8 32.1 21.6
Law 18.9 24.8 13.2
Islamic and Arabic studies 7.1 4.7 9.4
Other 19.8 22.5 17.1
Practical faculties
Medicine 13.0 12.2 13.9
Engineering 22.0 31.1 12.3
Agriculture 10.1 11.4 8.7
Sciences 15.1 11.4 19.1
Nursing 4.3 2.5 6.2
Technology 5.2 7.1 3.0
Other 30.2 24.3 36.9

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[157]

In 2013/12, more students (28.5%) in theoretical faculties graduated from the field of commerce than from any other field. In the same year, the majority of graduates (23.3%) in practical faculties were in the field of engineering. The lowest share (1.8%) of students graduating from the theoretical faculties was from the social service field, while the lowest share (3.7%) of students graduating from practical faculties was from the nursing field             (3.7%).[158] The distribution of graduates in 2013/12 roughly corresponds to the distribution of enrolments across fields of study in 2014/13. (See table 4.37 and figure 4.25.)

Table 4.37: Graduates of tertiary education by field of study and sex (2013/12)

Faculty of study All students Male students Female students
Theoretical facilities
Arts and humanitarian studies 56,348 10,878 45,470
Education 18,807 4,964 13,843
Social service 4,657 1,135 3,522
Commerce 73,945 41,117 32,828
Law 50,991 30,225 20,766
Islamic and Arabic studies 13,242 3,983 9,259
Other 41,070 20,255 20,815
Practical faculties
Medicine 9,689 4,952 4,737
Engineering 18,677 13,244 5,433
Agriculture 5,157 3,494 1,663
Sciences 10,513 4,027 6,486
Nursing 2,992 614 2,378
Technology 4,297 2,931 1,366
Other 28,760 13,344 15,416

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[159]

Figure 4.25
Source: CAPMAS, 2015[160]
Figure 4.25: Distribution of graduates by field of study (2013/12)

University rankings

The top five universities in Egypt, as ranked by the Ranking Web of Universities, are indicated in table 4.38 below. Cairo University and Alexandria University rank fairly well in the Arab World, at 4th and 7th and at 6th and 9th respectively in Africa, however these universities rank 724th and 916th globally. Furthermore, the three other Egyptian universities ranked significantly lower, with a considerable gap between the first ranked university and the last ranked university. This is an area of concern and it is imperative that the performance of the country’s universities be improved in order to produce graduates who are well qualified and able to compete in both the domestic and global labour markets.[161]

Table 4.38: Top 5 universities in Egypt on the World Ranking of Universities (2017)

Ranking –Egypt Ranking – Africa Ranking – Arab world Ranking – World University
1 6 4 724 Cairo University
2 9 7 916 Alexandria University
3 13 10 1,202 American University in Cairo
4 17 12 1,390 Mansoura University
5 19 15 1,601 Ain Shams University

Source: Ranking Web of Universities, 2017[162]

For information about the methodology used and the various aspects that are rated for this ranking, visit: http://www.webometrics.info/en/aw/Egypt

Quality of higher education and training

Table 4.39 below indicates Egypt’s performance as ranked by The Global Competitiveness Report 2016–2017 in relation to four indicators compared to Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria. For all indicators in table 4.39, except ‘tertiary education enrolment rate’, Egypt is ranked near the bottom of the 138 countries ranked. Egypt is ranked worst in the world for the ‘quality of management schools’ and almost at the bottom for the ‘local availability of specialised training services’ (136th). These are two areas where the county urgently needs to improve to address high unemployment among the educated.

Table 4.39: The quality of higher education and training (rank out of 138) (2016–2017)

Higher education and training indicator Egypt Morocco South Africa Nigeria
Value Rank Value Rank Value Rank Value Rank
Tertiary education enrolment rate, gross %* 31.7 81 24.6 92 19.7 99 10.4 114
Quality of the education system 2.1 135 2.8 119 2.3 134 2.8 118
Quality of management schools 2.5 138 4.1 76 5.4 21 3.8 94
Local availability of specialised training services 2.7 136 4.1 83 5.0 33 4.1 91

Source: World Economic Forum, 2016[163]
Note: Values are on a 1-to-7 scale unless otherwise indicated with an asterisk (*), with 7 being the most desirable outcome.

  • Country Profile
  • Introduction
  • Broad Economic Indicators
  • Currency and Exchange Rate
  • Competitiveness and Ease of Doing Business
  • Foreign Investment and Largest Companies
  • Foreign Aid
  • Country Strategic Framework
  • Summary of Economic Conditions
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Population
  • Living Standards and Poverty Levels
  • Healthcare
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Qualifications Profile of the Population and Workforce
  • Levels of Schooling and Basic Education
  • Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • Tertiary Education
  • Innovation in Egypt
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Labour Force
  • Employment by Sector
  • Employment by Skill Level
  • Employment by Occupation
  • Labour Productivity
  • Unemployment and Job Creation
  • Expatriates, Immigrants and the Egyptian Diaspora
  • Wage and Salary Trends and Social Insurance
  • Industrial Relations Framework
  • Labour Market Efficiency
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations

Education and Skills Development

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