Egypt

Technical and Vocational Education and Training

Technical and Vocational Education and Training legislation

Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Egypt is guided by the National Strategic Plan for Education (2007/8–2011/12) and the Technical Education Strategy (2011/12–2016/17).[132]

The formal TVET system follows a path that allows students in general and technical/vocational (agricultural, commercial and industrial) secondary schools to progress to either public/private universities or public/private non-university institutions (middle technical institutes and higher technical institutions). Middle technical institutes offer two-year courses and higher technical institutes offer four-year courses.[133] (See figure 4.23.)

Figure 4.23
Source: UNESCO-UNEVOC, 2012[134]

Notes:

General Education legend General education General Education legend Under this line is compulsory
General Education legend TVET General Education legend Possible pathways

Figure 4.23: TVET pathways


National Qualifications Framework

The national Skills Standards Project, a joint initiative by a group of European education organisations and Egypt’s Social Fund for Development, is tasked with the development of a national qualifications framework for the TVET sector. The NSS focuses on three main areas:[135]

  • Accreditation and qualification framework for each industry;
  • Training of teachers in accordance with European standards; and
  • Sustainable policy and management structure

There are several quality assurance agencies that regulate the TVET sector:

  • The National Quality Programme
  • The National Authority for Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Education (NAQAAE)
  • The Egyptian Organisation for Standardisation and Quality (EOS)
  • The Egyptian Accreditation Council (EGAC)

These bodies are meant to establish a national quality assurance programme that guarantees teaching staff are adequately trained and training is of a quality in line with international standards.[136]

Technical institutes (post-secondary/above intermediate)

The number of students enrolled at public technical institutions above intermediate level was 149,419 in 2005/04, dropping by 26.7% to 109,536 in 2014/13. Over the same period, the number of male students enrolled at these institutions decreased by 22.8%, compared to a drop of 30.8% for female students enrolled at the same institutions. Between 2005/04 and 2014/13, the number of students enrolled at public technical institutes of health and technical institutes of nursing more than tripled, while the number of students enrolled at commercial technical institutes experienced the largest decrease. Only the number male students enrolled at technical institutes for advanced industries (8.8%) the number of female students enrolled at technical institutes for hotels (8.2%) increased.[137]

Table 4.27: Student enrolment in public post-secondary technical institutions by sex (2005/04–2014/13)

Level of education Sex 2005/04 2010/09 2014/13
Industrial technical institute Total 47,659 34,855 51,093
Male 25,539 19,973 35,670
Female 22,120 14,882 15,423
Commercial technical institute Total 87,928 34,657 17,903
Male 44,359 21,429 8,893
Female 43,569 13,228 9,010
Technical institutes for hotels Total 3,888 2,980 3,114
Male 2,888 2,170 2,032
Female 1,000 810 1,082
Institutes of social service Total 1,164 1,073 701
Male 394 429 315
Female 770 644 386
Technical institutes of health Total 7,049 18,205 26,167
Male 3,584 4,605 6,294
Female 3,465 13,600 19,873
Technical institutes of nursing Total 1,207 2,565 4,848
Male 234 421 904
Female 973 2,144 3,944
Technical institutes for advanced industries Total 524 538 516
Male 386 380 420
Female 138 158 96
Institutes of Al-Azhar universities Total 8,924 5,194
Male 8,924 5,194
Female
Total Total 149,419 103,797 109,536
Male 77,384 58,331 59,722
Female 72,035 45,466 49,814

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[138]

Between 2005/04 and 2014/13, the number of students enrolled at private post-secondary (above intermediate level) technical institutions decreased by 62.5% from 20,404 to 7,643. Over the same period, the technical institute for fashion was the only institute that had an increase in the total number of student enrolments, where male enrolments increased by 83.3%, and female enrolments remained unchanged. Apart from this institution, the number of female enrolments at institutes for hotels almost doubled from 2005/04 to 2014/13. In 2014/13, 70.1% of students at private technical institutes were enrolled at institutes of social service, followed by 20% at institutes for management and secretarial and 7.1% at institutes for hotels.[139]

Table 4.28: Student enrolment in private post-secondary technical institutions by sex (2005/04–2014/13)

Institute Sex 2005/04 2010/09 2014/13
Social service Total 14,404 7,938 5,355
Male 5,949 3,679 2,550
Female 8,455 4,259 2,805
Management and secretarial Total 5,432 2,140 1,684
Male
Female 5,432 2,140 1,684
Hotels Total 543 677 541
Male 496 616 449
Female 47 61 92
Fashion Total 25 22 30
Male 6 9 11
Female 19 13 19
El Gouna nursing institute Total 33
Male 18
Female 15
Total Total 20,404 10,777 7,643
Male 6,451 4,304 3,028
Female 13,953 6,473 4,615

Source:CAPMAS, 2015[140]

The decline in the number of enrolments in public and private post-secondary technical institutions (above intermediate level) is possibly the result of the increase in the number of enrolments in universities. Even though earnings of vocational education are not necessary lower than that of university education, Egyptian students and their families view vocational education as sub-standard. This suggests that more students rather want to obtain a university education, which has led more students to move away from vocational education.[141]

Between 2005/04 and 2013/12, the number of graduates decreased by 44% from 84,270 to 47,209. The number of graduates from technical institutes of health quadrupled and those of technical institutes of nursing tripled. Also, the number of graduates from other post-secondary technical institutions (shown in the table 4.29 below) decreased. In 2013/12, the majority of graduates were from industrial technical institutes (30.6%), followed by 28.4% from health technical institutes, and 27.1% form commercial technical institutes.

Table 4.29: Graduates from post-secondary technical institutions (2005/04–2012/11)

Technical institute Sex 2005/04 2008/07 2010/09 2013/12
Industrial Total 20,618 16,480 16,634 14,449
Male 11,898 9,017 10,021 8,702
Female 8,720 7,463 6,613 5,747
Commercial Total 52,058 36,475 24,981 12,801
Male 23,291 17,541 12,708 5,625
Female 28,767 18,934 12,273 7,176
Tourism Total 1,463 1,603 1,403 978
Male 1,109 1,250 1,115 718
Female 354 353 288 260
Social service medium Total 6,623 6,342 3,296 2,536
Male 2,339 2,250 1,428 1,317
Female 4,284 4,092 1,868 1,219
Health Total 3,033 4,792 6,425 13,422
Male 1,554 2,266 1,954 2,959
Female 1,479 2,526 4,471 10,463
Nursing Total 475 872 938 1,419
Male 78 134 179 215
Female 397 738 759 1,204
Al-Azhar Total 739 1,604
Male 739
Female 1,604
Total Total 84,270 66,564 54,416 47,209
Male 40,269 32,458 28,144 21,140
Female 44,001 34,106 26,272 26,069

Source:CAPMAS, 2015[142]

  • Country Profile
  • Introduction
  • Broad Economic Indicators
  • Currency and Exchange Rate
  • Competitiveness and Ease of Doing Business
  • Foreign Investment and Largest Companies
  • Foreign Aid
  • Country Strategic Framework
  • Summary of Economic Conditions
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Population
  • Living Standards and Poverty Levels
  • Healthcare
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Qualifications Profile of the Population and Workforce
  • Levels of Schooling and Basic Education
  • Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • Tertiary Education
  • Innovation in Egypt
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Labour Force
  • Employment by Sector
  • Employment by Skill Level
  • Employment by Occupation
  • Labour Productivity
  • Unemployment and Job Creation
  • Expatriates, Immigrants and the Egyptian Diaspora
  • Wage and Salary Trends and Social Insurance
  • Industrial Relations Framework
  • Labour Market Efficiency
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations

Education and Skills Development

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