Egypt

Levels of Schooling and Basic Education

The education system in Egypt is comprised of pre-primary, basic (primary and preparatory), secondary (senior secondary and vocational), post-secondary (technical), and tertiary (non-universities and universities) levels.

Currently, pre-primary education is not part of formal schooling for children[16], but some children attend kindergarten from four years of age. This schooling aims to promote mental, physical, social, moral and emotional development, as well as focus on language development, numeracy and technical abilities.[17]

In Egypt, basic education is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 6 and 14. Children can attend either a public or private institution.[18] Basic education is divided into two stages; the primary stage comprises of six years, from ages 6 to 11, and the preparatory stage comprises of three years, from ages 12 to 14.[19] At the end of primary school, pupils write an end-of-level examination.[20] Pupils that pass this examination receive a completion certificate[21], which allows them to progress to preparatory schooling.[22] If pupils fail this examination after the second attempt, they can either progress to vocational preparatory schooling or quit education completely.[23]

For pupils to complete preparatory schooling, they write a centralised national examination, and if they pass this examination a Basic Education Certificate is awarded.[24] This certificate enables learners to progress, based on their performance, to either general secondary school or vocational secondary schooling.[25]

On the other hand, those pupils who progressed from primary education into vocational preparatory schooling receive a Certificate of Completion of Basic Education and Vocational Preparation upon completion.[26] This certificate allows learners to progress to vocational secondary schooling, which specialises in agriculture and industry. Those learners that complete vocational secondary schooling receive a Secondary School Diploma in Vocational Preparation. Learners with this diploma cannot progress to post-secondary education.[27]

Secondary education in Egypt is divided into two main trends; the first trend is general secondary and the second is technical secondary. Which avenue pupils pursue is determined by results at the end of preparatory schooling, where learners with high marks can progress to general secondary, while those with poor marks can only progress into technical secondary.

Pupils that progress into general secondary schooling complete a common curriculum in their first year, where from their second year they can choose to either follow the general (academic) path or the technical path. The majority of these pupils choose the technical path, because of limited space available in the general (academic) curriculum, or poor results from previous phases. At the end of general secondary schooling, learners write a national examination, and upon passing receive a General Secondary Education Certificate. This certificate enables learners to further their education at a tertiary level.[28]

Pupils that progress to technical secondary schooling can complete a three or five-year vocational programme in agriculture, commerce, or industry. On completion of the three-year programmes learners are awarded a Secondary Technical Diploma.[29] This diploma enables learners to continue with post-secondary education at an intermediate (technical) institute, where they study in a similar field of their diploma. On completion of the five-year programmes, learners write a central examination. Learners that pass this examination are awarded a Diploma of Advanced Technical Studies, which allows them to progress to a higher institute or university to study programmes in their field of specialisation.

Post-secondary education is offered at intermediate (technical) institutes for the duration of two years. Learners who choose to progress to post-secondary education are required to have a General Secondary School Certificate or a Secondary School Technical Diploma (with a 70% pass or higher).[30] These institutes offer practical programmes in the fields of commerce, industry, health and social services. On completion, learners are awarded a Technical Institute Diploma, and with a pass of 70% or higher, this diploma allows them to progress to a higher institute or university programme in a similar field of their specialisation.[31]

A learner with a General Secondary School Certificate, or a Secondary School Technical Diploma (minimum 65% pass), or a Diploma of Advanced Technical Studies can progress to higher education. Tertiary education is offered at non-university higher education institutions and at universities. Higher institutes offer a variety of higher professional education programmes to obtain a diploma, usually the Higher Diploma of Technology, which takes a period of three years to complete. These institutes also offer programmes to obtain a bachelor’s degree (equivalent to a university bachelor’s degree), which takes four years to complete. At university level, a bachelor’s/licence degree usually takes a period of four years to complete.[32]

Figure 4.5
Source: EP-Nuffic, 2015[33]
Figure 4.5: Levels of education in Egypt

In addition to the general school system, Egypt has a parallel system comprised of Al-Azhar schools. The Al-Azhar education system follows a similar structure to that of general education, comprises of four years of primary, three years of preparatory, four years of secondary[34] and follows the same curriculum as general education, but with a much greater focus on religious subjects.[35] Al-Azhar schools are found throughout the country, but are more common in rural areas. These schools accept only Muslim pupils and in all phases of schooling boys and girls are separated from one another.[36]

Pre-primary education

Gross enrolment rate

The gross enrolment rate for pre-primary education is the total enrolment in pre-primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official pre-primary education age. The rate may exceed 100% due to the enrolment of over-aged and under-aged pupils.[37]

Egypt’s gross enrolment rate in pre-primary education more than quadrupled between 1990 and 2014, increasing from 5.4% to 30.3%. Historically, the pre-primary enrolment rate has been similar for boy and girl learners, and this trend is continuing (see figure 4.6).[38]

Figure 4.6
Source: World Bank, 2016[39]
Figure 4.6: School enrolment, pre-primary (% gross) (1990–2014)

Primary education

Between 2004/03 and 2014/13, the number of learners enrolled for primary education increased by 37.3%, from 7.2 to 9.9 million. Over the same period, the number of learners enrolled for Al-Azhar primary education climbed from 821,217 to 1.1 million – an increase of 33.7%.[40]

Table 4.5: Primary education (general and Al-Azhar), pupils (000s) (2004/03–2014/13)

  2004/03 2008/07 2010/09 2012/11 2014/13
General primary education, pupils 7,215 9,051 9,334 9,645 9,906
Al-Azhar primary education, pupils 821 1,148 1,193 1,149 1,098

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[41]

Figure 4.7
Source: CAPMAS, 2015[42]
Figure 4.7: Primary education (general and Al-Azhar), pupils (2004/03–2014/13)

The gross enrolment rate in primary education has generally been higher for boys than girls since 1990, however this gap has shrunk over the years. In 1990 it was 97.5% for boys and 82.9% for girls, but by 2014 it was 104.1% and 103.8% for boys and girls respectively.[43]

Figure 4.8
Source: World Bank, 2016[44]
Figure 4.8: Enrolments in primary education (% gross) – male and female (1990–2014)

In 2014, the enrolment rate for primary education in Egypt was 110%, which was higher than that of Nigeria (84.7%) in 2010, South Africa (99.7%) in 2014 and the sub-Saharan African average (99.6%) in 2013, but lower than Algeria (118.7%) in 2014, Morocco (116.1%) in 2014 and the Middle East and North African average (105.2%) in 2014.[45]

Figure 4.9
Source: World Bank, 2016[46]
Figure 4.9: Regional comparison: Primary education, gross enrolment rate (1990–2014)

In 2014/13, private school enrolments constituted only 9.1% of total primary school enrolments. Even though this indicates that the main vehicle for delivering primary education in Egypt is the public school system, the percentage of enrolments in public schools has declined slightly over the last three years for which there is information.[47]

Table 4.6: Enrolments in general primary education: Public and private (%) (2012/11–2014/13)

Indicator 2012/11 2013/12 2014/13
School enrolment, primary, public (% of total primary) 91.3 91.1 90.9
School enrolment, primary, private (% of total primary) 8.7 8.9 9.1

Sources: CAPMAS, 2013[48]; CAPMAS, 2014[49]; CAPMAS, 2015[50]

Between 2012/11 and 2014/13, the number of general primary school teachers climbed from 376,745[51] to 394,710[52] – a small increase of 4.8%. During the same period, the number of Al-Azhar primary school teachers increased by 6.2% from 67,178[53] to 71,372.[54] Over two years, there was a higher increase in the number of Al-Azhar primary school teachers compared to general school primary teachers. (See table 4.7)

Table 4.7: Primary education (general and Al-Azhar): Number of teachers (000s) (2012/11–014/13)

  2012/11 2013/12 2014/13
General primary education, teachers 377 391 395
Al-Azhar primary education, teachers 67 69 71

Sources: CAPMAS, 2013[55]; CAPMAS, 2014[56]; CAPMAS, 2015[57]

In 2014/13, there were 237,416 female general primary school teachers, compared to 157,294 male general primary school teachers. Eighty-eight percent of female general primary school teachers taught in public schools and 12% taught in private schools, while 95.4% of male general primary school teachers taught in public schools and 4.6% taught in private schools.[58] (See figure 4.10.)

Figure 4.10
Sources: CAPMAS, 2013[59]; CAPMAS, 2014[60]; CAPMAS, 2015[61]
Figure 4.10: General primary education: Number of teachers in private and public schools (2012/11–2013/14)

In 2014/13, there were 43 pupils to a teacher at general primary schools, which has worsened from 41 in 2004/03. The increase in the number of Al-Azhar primary school teachers has also not kept up with the rise in enrolments. As a result, this system’s primary school pupil-teacher ratio worsened slightly from 33:1 in 2004/03 to 34:1 in 2014/13.[62]

Table 4.8: Pupil-teacher ratio: General and Al-Azhar primary school education

  2004/03 2008/07 2010/09 2012/11 2014/13
General primary education 41:1 43:1 38:1 43:1 43:1
Al-Azhar primary education 33:1 37:1 33:1 35:1 34:1

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[63]

Figure 4.11
Source: CAPMAS, 2015[64]
Figure 4.11: Pupil-teacher ratio, primary school (2004/03–2014/13)

According to the World Bank, Egypt’s primary school pupil-teacher ratio was much lower, and has improved slightly from 25:1 in 1990 to 23:1 in 2014.[65] However, Egypt’s Statistical Yearbook 2015 reported that there was a pupil-teacher ratio of 43:1 in 2014/13.[66]

Comparing World Bank figures for different countries, Egypt’s pupil-teacher ratio for primary education of 23:1 in 2014 was better than that of Algeria (24:1), Morocco (26:1), South Africa (32:1) and the sub-Saharan African average (43:1), but worse than the Middle East and North African average (20:1) and the world average (24:1).[67]

Table 4.9: Regional comparison: Primary education, pupil-teacher ratio (1990–2014)

Country 1990 2000 2010 2012 2014
Algeria 28:1 28:1 23:1 23:1 24:1
Egypt 25:1 23:1 28:1 ... 23:1
Morocco 25:1 29:1 26:1 26:1 26:1
Nigeria 41:1 43:1 38:1 ... ...
South Africa 35:1 33:1 33:1 32:1
Middle East and North Africa 25:1 23:1 21:1 19:1 20:1
Sub-Saharan Africa 36:1 42:1 42:1 42:1 42:1
World 26:1 26:1 24:1 24:1 24:1

Source: World Bank, 2016[68]

Between 2013 and 2014, the percentage of primary school teachers who are trained increased minimally from 72.2% to 72.7%. In 2014, 75.1% of female primary teachers were trained, compared to just 69.3% of male primary teachers.[69]

Figure 4.12
Source: World Bank, 2016[70]
Figure 4.12: Trained teachers as a % of total primary school teachers (2013 & 2014)

Primary education and completion rates

The primary education completion rate is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary school. The rate can exceed 100% due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades.[71]

Egypt’s primary school completion rate in 1997 was 87.1%, and increased to 103.8% in 2013 – an increase of 19.2% over six years. The completion rate for boys was higher than that for girls in 1997 (92.2% compared to 81.8%); however, was slightly higher for girls than boys in 2013, at 104.3% and 103.4% respectively.[72] Between 1997 and 2013, the rise in completion rate for girls (27.5%) was more than double that of the completion rate for boys (12.2%).

Figure 4.13
Source: World Bank, 2016[73]
Figure 4.13: Primary education completion rate (1997–2013)

Between 2004/03 and 2014/13, the number of pupils who passed general primary education increased by only 6.3%, while the number of pupils who passed Al-Azhar primary education almost doubled (rose by 89%). In 2014/13, the number of pupils who completed Al-Azhar primary education was one eighth of those pupils who passed general primary education in the same year. The majority of pupils who passed examinations in both general and Al-Azhar primary education were boys, accounting for 51% of general and 55% of Al-Azhar pupils.[74]

Table 4.10: Completion of primary education by passing general examinations (000s) (2004/03–2014/13)

  2004/03 2008/07 2010/09 2012/11 2014/13
General primary
Total 1,378 1,271 1,361 1,406 1,465
Boys 722 639 687 712 743
Girls 656 633 674 694 722
Al-Azhar primary
Total 92 146 171 170 174
Boys 58 85 95 93 95
Girls 34 61 76 76 79

Source: : CAPMAS, 2015[75]

The quality of primary education

Egypt ranked 28th out of 138 countries for its primary education enrolment rate in The Global Competitiveness Report 2016–2017, higher than South Africa and Nigeria. However, the quality of primary education in Egypt is of major concern. For this indicator, Egypt ranks 134th out of 138 countries. This is worse than Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria, which rank 118th, 126th and 124th respectively.[76] There is also an urgent need to address Egypt’s quality of math and science education, for which the country ranks 130th. Internet access in schools, for which Egypt ranks 133rd, also needs to be increased.[77]

Table 4.11: Quality of primary and secondary education in Egypt (2016–2017)

Higher education and training indicator Egypt Morocco South Africa Nigeria
Value Rank/138 Value Rank/138 Value Rank/138 Value Rank/138
Primary education enrolment rate, net %* 98.0 28 98.4 22 97.1 44 63.8 136
Quality of the primary education 2.1 134 2.9 118 2.7 126 2.8 124
Quality of math and science education 2.6 130 4.0 72 2.2 138 2.7 124
Internet access in schools 2.6 133 3.6 109 3.5 111 3.1 129

Source: World Economic Forum, 2016[78]
Note: Values are on a 1-7 scale with 7 being the most desirable, unless otherwise indicated with an asterisk (*).

Preparatory education

Between 2005/04 and 2014/13, the number of pupils enrolled in general preparatory schools increased by 57.5% from 2.8 to 4.3 million. Between 2004/03 and 2014/13, the number of pupils enrolled in Al-Azhar preparatory schools increased by 40.3% from 333,430 to 468,052.[79]

Table 4.12: Preparatory education (general and Al-Azhar), pupils (000s) (2004/03–2014/13)

  2004/03 2008/07 2010/09 2012/11 2014/13
General preparatory education, pupils 2,754* 3,664 3,914 4,159 4,338
Al-Azhar preparatory education, pupils 333 366 433 485 468

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[80]
Note: * Figure for 2005/04

Figure 4.14
Source: CAPMAS, 2015[81]
Figure 4.14: Preparatory education (general and Al-Azhar), pupils (2004/03–2014/13)

In 2014/13, private school enrolments only constituted 6.6% of total preparatory school enrolments. Nonetheless, the percentage of enrolments at private preparatory schools has increased slightly since 2012/11.[82]

Table 4.13: Enrolments in general preparatory education: Public and private (%) (2014/13)

Indicator 2012/11 2013/12 2014/13
School enrolment, preparatory, public (% of total preparatory) 93.7 93.5 93.4
School enrolment, preparatory, private (% of total preparatory) 6.3 6.5 6.6

Sources: CAPMAS, 2013[83]; CAPMAS, 2014[84]; CAPMAS, 2015[85]

The number of general preparatory school teachers increased by only 7.3% from 2012/11 (225,861) to 2014/13 (242,264). The number of Al-Azhar preparatory school teachers was 41,833 in 2012/11 and increased by 11.2% to 46,534 in 2014/13.[86] (See table 4.14 and figure 4.15.)

Table 4.14: Preparatory education (general and Al-Azhar): Teachers (000s) (2012/11–2014/13)

  2012/11 2013/12 2014/13
General preparatory education, teachers 226 240 242
Al-Azhar preparatory education, teachers 42 44 47

Sources: CAPMAS, 2013[87]; CAPMAS, 2014[88]; CAPMAS, 2015[89]

In 2014/13 there were an almost equal number of male and female general preparatory school teachers (50.2% female).[90] In 2014/13, 94% of male and 93.6% of female preparatory school teachers worked at public preparatory schools and 6% of male and 6.4% of female preparatory school teachers worked at private schools.[91]

Figure 4.15
Sources: CAPMAS, 2013[92]; CAPMAS, 2014[93]; CAPMAS, 2015[94]
Figure 4.15: General preparatory education: Number of teachers in private and public schools (2012/11–2013/14)

Between 2004/03 and 2014/13, the pupil-teacher ratio for general preparatory education worsened slightly, increasing from 39:1 to 40:1. The pupil-teacher ratio for Al-Azhar preparatory schools also worsened from 30:1 in 2005/04 to 32:1 in 2014/13.[95]

Table 4.15: Preparatory education (general and Al-Azhar), pupil-teacher ratio (2004/03–2014/13)

  2004/03 2008/07 2010/09 2012/11 2014/13
General preparatory education, pupil-teacher ratio 39:1 41:1 40:1 41:1 40:1
Al-Azhar preparatory education, pupil-teacher ratio *30:1 29:1 28:1 32:1 32:1

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[96]
Note: * Figure for 2005/04

Figure 4.16
Source:CAPMAS, 2015[97]
Figure 4.16: Preparatory education (general and Al-Azhar), pupil-teacher ratio (2004/03–2014/13)

Completion of preparatory education

Between 2004/03 and 2014/13, the number of pupils that completed their general preparatory education increased by 8.2%, compared to a 52.9% increase in the number of pupils that completed Al-Azhar preparatory education over the same period. Nonetheless the number of general preparatory pupils that passed examinations was almost tenfold the number that completed preparatory schooling at Al-Azhar schools. In both school systems, a slightly higher share of pupils who passed were boys.[98]

Table 4.16: Completion of preparatory education by passing general examinations (000s) (2004/03–2014/13)

  2004/03 2008/07 2010/09 2012/11 2014/13
General preparatory
Total 1,110 968 1,090 1,165 1,200
Boys 559 477 547 583 604
Girls 550 491 543 582 596
Al-Azhar preparatory
Total 85 92 109 150 130
Boys 54 55 67 90 73
Girls 31 37 42 61 57

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[99]

Secondary education

The latest figure for the rate of transition from primary to secondary schooling (the number of entrants to the first grade of secondary school in a year as a percentage of the number of pupils enrolled in the final grade of primary school in the previous year) shows that Egypt’s transition rate was 93.6% in 2003. A slightly higher share of females than males transitioned from primary to lower secondary school (92.4% of males and 95% of females), despite the male primary completion rate in 2002 being marginally higher than that of females (93.6% of males and 93% of females).[100]

Figure 4.17
Source:World Bank, 2016[101]
Figure 4.17: Progression to lower secondary education (%) (1999–2003)

Between 2004/03 and 2014/13, the number of pupils enrolled for general secondary education has fluctuated. In 2004/03 there were 1.3 million pupils enrolled for general secondary education, which dropped to 785,000 in 2008/07, but rose again to 1.5 million in 2014/13. Between 2004/03 and 2014/13, pupils enrolled for Al-Azhar secondary education increased by almost a third, from 276,073 to 356,471.[102]

Table 4.17: Secondary education pupils (general and Al-Azhar) (000s) (2004/03–2014/13)

  2004/03 2006/05 2008/07 2010/09 2011/10 2012/11 2014/13
General schools 1,273 1,239 785 862 723 1,399 1,456
Al-Azhar schools 276 280 279 278 305 339 357

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[103]

Figure 4.18
Source: CAPMAS, 2015[104]
Figure 4.18: Secondary education, pupils (general and Al-Azhar) (2004/03–2014/13)

The gross enrolment rate for secondary education increased from 75.3% in 1990 to 86.1% in 2014, reflecting an increase of 14.3%. In 1990, the male enrolment rate (84.5%) was considerably higher than the female rate (65.6%), but this gap had virtually disappeared by 2014 (86.3% for males and 85.9% for females).[105]

Figure 4.19
Source:World Bank, 2016[106]
Figure 4.19: School enrolment, secondary (% gross) (1990–2014)

Pupils in lower secondary education are enrolled either as vocational or general pupils. The most recent data show that 97% (4.7 million) of pupils were enrolled for general courses, while the remainder (145,243 pupils - only 3% of the total) were enrolled for vocational courses.[107]

Similarly, upper secondary education pupils are enrolled either as vocational or general pupils. In 2014 53.4% were in general secondary schooling and 46.6% in vocational schooling.[108] (See figure 4.20.)

Table 4.18: Lower and upper secondary education pupils by type (000s) (2001–2014)

    2001 2004 2010 2012 2014
Lower secondary Total 4,871 4,636 4,474 4,658 4,814
General 4,707 4,451 4,532 4,669
Vocational 164 185 125 145
Upper secondary Total 3,453 3,694 2,372 3,253 3,394
General 1,196 1,354 1,169 1,644 1,813
Vocational 2,257 2,340 1,202 1,609 1,582

Source: World Bank, 2016[109]

Figure 4.20
Source:World Bank, 2016[110]
Figure 4.20: Lower and upper secondary education pupils by type (2014)

According to the Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, enrolment in technical secondary institutions dropped from 1.7 million in 2012/2011 to 1.6 million in 2014/13, representing a 4.6% decrease within two years. The number of enrolments in agricultural secondary institutions decreased by 7.3% and those in industrial institutions by 7.2% over the same period. Enrolments in commercial secondary institutions decreased marginally.

Table 4.19: Number of enrolments by type of technical secondary education (000s) (2012/11–2014/13)

Education type 2012/11 2013/12 2014/13
Total 1,628 1,687 1,610
Agricultural secondary* 170 179 166
Commercial secondary 621 652 650
  Public 499 537 546
  Private 122 114 104
Industrial secondary 837 856 794
  Public 834 853 791
  Private 2.7 3.0 2.9

Sources:CAPMAS, 2013[111]; CAPMAS, 2014[112]; CAPMAS, 2015[113]
Note: *There are no private agricultural secondary; totals may not add up due to rounding.

In 2014/13, there was a total number of 7,131 secondary schools in Egypt, with general secondary schools accounting for the majority (42%). Al-Azhar secondary schools accounted for a further 30.2%, while technical secondary schools accounted for 27.8%. Agricultural technical schools made up the minority (10%) of the total number of technical secondary schools, and only accounted for 2.8% of all secondary schools in the country. Industrial secondary schools had the highest share of pupils attending technical secondary schools (49%).

Table 4.20: Distribution of secondary schools in Egypt (2014/2013)

School type Number of schools
General secondary education 2,994
Technical secondary education 1,984
  Agricultural 199
  Commercial 819
  Industrial 966
Al-Azhar secondary education 2,153

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[114]
Note: * Figure for 2005/04

Figure 4.21
Source: CAPMAS, 2015[115]
Figure 4.21: Distribution of secondary schools by type (2014/2013)

In 2014/13, private school enrolments constituted 12.1% of total secondary school enrolments. Similar to the trend in primary and preparatory schooling, the percentage of enrolments in public secondary schools decreased slightly between 2012/11 and 2014/13, while those for private secondary schools has increased.[116]

Table 4.21: Enrolments in secondary education: Public and private (%) (2000–2015)

Indicator 2012/11 2013/12 2014/13
School enrolment, secondary, public (% of total secondary) 89.3 88.5 87.9
School enrolment, secondary, private (% of total secondary) 10.7 11.5 12.1

Sources: CAPMAS, 2013[117]; CAPMAS, 2014[118]; CAPMAS, 2015[119]

Between 2012/11 and 2014/13, the number of general secondary school teachers increased by 8.4% from 96,514 to 104,654. Over the same period, the number of Al-Azhar secondary school teachers increased by a mere 1.7%, from 37,686 to 38,320.[120] (See table 4.22)

Table 4.22: Secondary education (general and Al-Azhar): Number of teachers (000s) (2012/11–2014/13)

  2012/11 2013/12 2014/13
General secondary education, teachers 97 102 104
Al-Azhar secondary education, teachers 38 37 38

Sources: CAPMAS, 2013[121]; CAPMAS, 2014[122]; CAPMAS, 2015[123]

Between 2004/03 and 2010/09, the general pupil-teacher ratio improved substantially, decreasing from a high of 41:1 to 22:1. Since then, the pupil-teacher ratio has worsened again, increasing to 38:1 in 2014/13. Between 2004/03 and 2014/13, pupil-teacher ratio in Al-Azhar schools has fluctuated, but has not exceeded 30 pupils to a teacher.[124] In 2014/13, Al-Azhar secondary schools had 10 fewer children in a class than did general secondary schools.

Table 4.23: Secondary education (general and Al-Azhar), pupil-teacher ratio (2004/03–2014/13)

  2004/03 2008/07 2010/09 2012/11 2014/13
General secondary education 41:1 33:1 22:1 38:1 38:1
Al-Azhar secondary education 29:1 26:1 23:1 29:1 28:1

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[125]

Figure 4.22
Source: CAPMAS, 2015[126]
Figure 4.22: Secondary education (general and Al-Azhar), pupil-teacher ratio (2004/03–2014/13)

In 2013/12, a total of 147,191 teachers worked at secondary technical institutions in 2013/12. The share of pupils and teachers at technical secondary institutions who were at agricultural institutions was roughly the same, at around 10%. In contrast, where roughly 39% of pupils enrolled at technical schools were in commercial schools (see table 4.24), only 25% of teachers at technical institutes were at commercial schools. The share of technical school pupils at industrial institutes was 51%, and the share of technical school teachers at such institutes was 66%. This suggests that the pupil teacher ratio in industrial institutes is better than at agricultural and commercial technical institutes.

Table 4.24: Number of teachers in technical secondary institutions by type of education (2013/12)

Type of education 2013/12
Agricultural 13,875
Commercial 36,874
Industrial 96,442
Total 147,191

Source: OECD, 2015[127]

In 2014, 63.2% of secondary school teachers were trained, with the share of female teachers trained exceeding the share of male secondary school teachers trained (68.1% versus 59.3%). In 2014, the share of primary school teachers (72.7%) who were appropriately trained was fairly high compared to secondary education teachers (63.2%), indicating that the country’s primary education is likely of better quality than secondary education.[128]

Completion of secondary education

Between 2004/03 and 2014/13, the number of pupils that passed general secondary education rose by 12.1%, while the number of pupils that passed Al-Azhar secondary education dropped by 4.3%. In 2014/13, the number of pupils that passed general secondary education was five times the number that completed their secondary education at Al-Azhar schools. The majority of pupils who passed examinations in general secondary education were girls (54.6%), while the majority of those who passed examinations in the Al-Azhar schools were boys (54.1%).[129]

Table 4.25: Completion of secondary education by passing general examinations (000s) (2004/03–2014/13)

  2004/03 2008/07 2010/09 2012/11 2014/13
General secondary
Total 377 332 38 384 422
Boys 177 154 23 176 192
Girls 200 178 16 209 231
Al-Azhar secondary
Total 87 89 63 87 83
Boys 55 57 40 53 45
Girls 31 32 24 34 38

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[130]

Between 2005/04 and 2014/13, the number of students at agricultural and commercial institutes that passed examinations decreased by 26.8% and 14.3% respectively, while at industrial institutes the number increased by a mere 2%. Over the same period, the number of male students that passed examinations in commercial and industrial institutes increased by 11% and 13.2% respectively. Similarly, the number of female students that passed examinations in commercial and industrial decreased by 25% and 14.8% respectively. The number of male and female students that passed at agricultural institutes decreased (19.4% of males and 50% of females).

Table 4.26: Students who passed technical secondary examinations (000s) (2005/04–2014/13)

Type of education 2005/04 2008/07 2010/09 2012/11 2013/12 2014/13
Agricultural secondary 
Total 82 54 16 53 57 60
Males 62 30 14 43 45 50
Females 20 15 2.2 10 12 10
Commercial secondary 
Total 238 187 45 177 189 204
Males 73 54 17 64 71 81
Females 164 133 28 113 118 123
Industrial secondary 
Total 304 253 94 271 299 310
Males 182 144 61 174 193 206
Females 122 109 33 97 106 104

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[131]

  • Country Profile
  • Introduction
  • Broad Economic Indicators
  • Currency and Exchange Rate
  • Competitiveness and Ease of Doing Business
  • Foreign Investment and Largest Companies
  • Foreign Aid
  • Country Strategic Framework
  • Summary of Economic Conditions
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Population
  • Living Standards and Poverty Levels
  • Healthcare
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Qualifications Profile of the Population and Workforce
  • Levels of Schooling and Basic Education
  • Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • Tertiary Education
  • Innovation in Egypt
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Labour Force
  • Employment by Sector
  • Employment by Skill Level
  • Employment by Occupation
  • Labour Productivity
  • Unemployment and Job Creation
  • Expatriates, Immigrants and the Egyptian Diaspora
  • Wage and Salary Trends and Social Insurance
  • Industrial Relations Framework
  • Labour Market Efficiency
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations

Education and Skills Development

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