Egypt

Foreign Investment and Largest Companies

Foreign investments

Between 2000 and 2010, Egypt’s foreign direct investment (FDI) more than quadrupled.[52] Though it declined drastically in 2011, FDI increased again to a substantial USD 6.9 billion in 2015, which was the equivalent of 2.1% of the country's GDP. Table 2.9 shows that since 1990, FDI inflows have far exceeded outflows.

Table 2.10: Foreign direct investment, inflows and outflows (USD millions), 1990–2015

  1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Inflow 734 1,235 6,386 -483 2,798 4,192 4,612 6,885
Outflow 12 51 1,176 626 211 301 253 182

Source: World Bank, 2016[53]

In 2012, the United Kingdom was the largest contributor to Egypt’s FDI, followed by Belgium and the United States. Over the period between 2001 and 2012, the three largest investors were the United Kingdom, the United States and the United Arab Emirates.[54]

Table 2.11: Egypt’s FDI inflows (USD millions) of top 10 investing countries, 2001–2012

2001 2012 2001–2012
Country Inflow Country Inflow Country Inflow
France 208 UK 5,767 UK  27,182
US 207 Belgium 2,075 US  27,028
Spain 83 US 1,567 UAE  6,379
UK 39 Netherlands 468 Belgium  6,039
Portugal 39 UAE 418 France  3,741
Germany 18 France 305 Italy  2,332
Switzerland 5 Germany 208 Kuwait  2,192
Kuwait 2 Saudi Arabia 202 Saudi Arabia  2,087
Saudi Arabia 2 Italy 152 Netherlands  1,549
Italy 1 Switzerland 127 Germany  1,369

Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2016[55]
Notes: US: United States; UK: United Kingdom; UAE: United Arab Emirates

Largest companies

Egyptian companies listed in the table below are ranked in the top 500 companies in Africa.[56] Egyptian companies listed in the table below are ranked in the top 500 companies in Africa. In 2015, the Suez Canal Authority was the top company in Egypt, ranking 16th out of the top 500 in Africa, it climbed 3 places from its ranking in 2014. The Arab Contractors improved the most in its ranking from 2014 to 2015, moving up 20 places from 91st to 71st.

Ezz Steel Company and Al Ezz Dekheila Steel Co. fell by more than 10 places in their rankings from 2014 to 2015. Middle East Oil Refineries dropped by a substantial 56 places from 35th in 2014 to 91st in 2015. Over the same period, all other companies in the table below increased in their rankings and Orange Egypt appeared in the top 500 companies for the first time in 2015, ranking at 92nd.

Table 2.12: Top 10 Egyptian companies ranked in the top 500 African Companies (2015)

Company Africa Ranking Website
2014 2015
Suez Canal Authority 19 16 http://www.suezcanal.gov.eg/
Elsewedy Electric 62 47 http://www.elsewedyelectric.com
EgyptAir Holdings 63 58 https://www.egyptair.com
Ezz Steel Company 51 62 http://www.ezzsteel.com/
The Arab Contractors 91 71 http://www.arabcont.com/english/default.aspx
EgyptAir Airlines 79 72 https://www.egyptair.com
Middle East Oil Refineries 35 91 http://www.midor.com.eg/
Orange Egypt 92 https://www.orange.eg/en/
Al Ezz Dekheila Steel Co. 73 98 http://www.ezzsteel.com/main.asp?pageID=62
Orascom Construction Industries 135 123 http://www.orascom.com/

Source: Africa Report, 2016[57]

  • Country Profile
  • Introduction
  • Broad Economic Indicators
  • Currency and Exchange Rate
  • Competitiveness and Ease of Doing Business
  • Foreign Investment and Largest Companies
  • Foreign Aid
  • Country Strategic Framework
  • Summary of Economic Conditions
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Population
  • Living Standards and Poverty Levels
  • Healthcare
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Qualifications Profile of the Population and Workforce
  • Levels of Schooling and Basic Education
  • Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • Tertiary Education
  • Innovation in Egypt
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Labour Force
  • Employment by Sector
  • Employment by Skill Level
  • Employment by Occupation
  • Labour Productivity
  • Unemployment and Job Creation
  • Expatriates, Immigrants and the Egyptian Diaspora
  • Wage and Salary Trends and Social Insurance
  • Industrial Relations Framework
  • Labour Market Efficiency
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations

Economy

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