Egypt

Employment by Sector

In 2014, the majority (27.5%) of employed people worked in the agriculture, hunting, forestry, wood and fishing industries. The distribution of people employed in manufacturing (11.1%), construction and building (11.3%), and wholesale and retail repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (11.2%) is roughly equal. Interestingly, the highest gender discrepancy was found in the agricultural industries, which employed 43.2% of working women, compared to 23.5% of males.

Table 5.11: Distribution of all employees, 15 years and older, by industry group (%) (2014)

Industry group Total Male Female
Agriculture, hunting, forestry, wood and fishing 27.5 23.5 43.2
Mining and quarrying 0.2 0.2 0.0
Manufactures 11.1 13.0 4.1
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 0.9 1.1 0.3
Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 0.9 1.0 0.3
Construction and building 11.3 14.2 0.3
Wholesale and retail trade repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 11.2 12.3 6.9
Transportation and storage 7.2 9.0 0.6
Accommodation and food service activities 2.3 2.7 0.6
Information and communication 0.8 0.8 0.8
Financial and insurance activities 0.6 0.6 0.8
Real estate and rent 0.1 0.2 0.1
Specialised scientific and technical activities 1.7 1.9 1.1
Administrative and support service activities 0.6 0.7 0.3
Public administration and defence, compulsory social solidarity 7.9 7.6 9.0
Education 9.4 6.1 22.4
Health and social work activities 2.7 1.4 7.7
Arts, entertainment and recreation activities 0.5 0.5 0.4
Other service activities 2.5 3.0 0.5
Home service for private households 0.5 0.4 0.7
Regional, international organisations & foreign embassies and consulates 0.02 0.02 0.02

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[21]

Of the employed population in public and public business sectors, the housing and construction sector accounted for the majority (26.1%), followed by the industry, petroleum and mineral abundancy sector (25%), and electricity sector (16.4%). The distribution of people employed in the remaining sectors each accounted for less than 10%, and culture and media had the least employees (0.3%). The majority of males were employed in the housing and construction sector (27.8%), while the majority of females were employed in industry, petroleum and mineral abundancy sector (20.8%).

Table 5.12: Employed population in public and public business sector by activity sectors and sex (2014)

Activity sectors Total Male Female
Agriculture, public work and water resources 2.6 2.2 5.1
Industry, petroleum and mineral abundancy 25.0 25.6 20.8
Electricity 16.4 16.4 16.0
Transportation and trips 6.0 6.3 4.0
Supply and internal trade 4.0 3.8 5.9
Money and economy 7.3 6.4 13.6
Housing and construction 26.1 27.8 14.2
Health, social, and religious services 3.4 2.5 9.9
Culture and media 0.3 0.3 0.4
Tourism and civil aviation 5.7 5.5 7.5
Defence, security and justice 3.2 3.3 2.5

Source: CAPMAS, 2015[22]

The largest group of employees work in the services sector, accounting for 47.9% of employment, 46.9% of male employment compared to 52.1% of female employment. Interestingly, the share of males employed in industry (29%) is far higher than the share of females (5%).[23]

Figure 5.4
Source: World Bank, 2016[24]
Figure 5.4: Sectors of employment by sex (2014)

  • Country Profile
  • Introduction
  • Broad Economic Indicators
  • Currency and Exchange Rate
  • Competitiveness and Ease of Doing Business
  • Foreign Investment and Largest Companies
  • Foreign Aid
  • Country Strategic Framework
  • Summary of Economic Conditions
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Population
  • Living Standards and Poverty Levels
  • Healthcare
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Qualifications Profile of the Population and Workforce
  • Levels of Schooling and Basic Education
  • Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • Tertiary Education
  • Innovation in Egypt
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Labour Force
  • Employment by Sector
  • Employment by Skill Level
  • Employment by Occupation
  • Labour Productivity
  • Unemployment and Job Creation
  • Expatriates, Immigrants and the Egyptian Diaspora
  • Wage and Salary Trends and Social Insurance
  • Industrial Relations Framework
  • Labour Market Efficiency
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations

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