Egypt

Employment by Occupation

Managers, professionals, and technicians accounted for 33.9% of the employed population in 2015. Though a higher share of women (40.8%) than men (32.2%) worked as managers, professionals and technicians, the small number of women working means that there are still far more males in these professions. Skilled agricultural and trade workers made up 32.8% of those employed. Though a higher share of women than men were employed in agriculture, the share of males working as skilled agricultural and trades workers (33.4%) was higher than the share of women in these positions (30.6%).[28]

Table 5.14: Distribution of employees by main occupation (%) (2015)

Occupation Total Male Female
Managers, professionals, and technicians 33.9 32.2 40.8
Clerical, service and sales workers 12.8 13.2 11.2
Skilled agricultural and trades workers 32.8 33.4 30.6
Plant and machine operators, and assemblers 10.2 12.2 2.7
Elementary occupations 10.3 9.1 14.8
Total (000s) 24,779 19,694 5,085

Source: ILO, 2017[29]

Figure 5.5

Source: ILO, 2017[30]
Figure 5.5: Distribution of employees by main occupation (2015)

Employment in senior and middle management

At 22.7%, the average share of firms in the Middle East and North Africa that have female participation in ownership is lower than the sub-Saharan African and world averages of 36.1% and 35.1%. The share of Egyptian firms with female participation in ownership in 2013 was even lower, at 16.1%. Only 3.9% of Egyptian firms had majority female ownership, and the share of firms with a female top manager was 3.7%.

Table 5.15: Regional comparison: female employment in senior and middle management

Country % of firms with female participation in ownership % of firms with majority female ownership % of firms with a female top manager
Egypt (2013) 16.1 3.9 3.7
Morocco (2013) 31.3 3.5 4.3
Nigeria (2014) 16.2 13.2 13.9
South Africa (2007) 22.6 N/A N/A
Middle East and North Africa 22.7 3.7 5.1
Sub-Saharan Africa 36.1 11.6 14.9
World 35.1 13.3 18.5

Source: World Bank, 2016[31]
Note: Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa and world averages are computed for the years 2010–2017

  • Country Profile
  • Introduction
  • Broad Economic Indicators
  • Currency and Exchange Rate
  • Competitiveness and Ease of Doing Business
  • Foreign Investment and Largest Companies
  • Foreign Aid
  • Country Strategic Framework
  • Summary of Economic Conditions
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Population
  • Living Standards and Poverty Levels
  • Healthcare
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Qualifications Profile of the Population and Workforce
  • Levels of Schooling and Basic Education
  • Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • Tertiary Education
  • Innovation in Egypt
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations
  • Labour Force
  • Employment by Sector
  • Employment by Skill Level
  • Employment by Occupation
  • Labour Productivity
  • Unemployment and Job Creation
  • Expatriates, Immigrants and the Egyptian Diaspora
  • Wage and Salary Trends and Social Insurance
  • Industrial Relations Framework
  • Labour Market Efficiency
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • Implications, Challenges and Recommendations

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